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Brønsted-Lowry definition
Acid is any substance that can donate a hydrogen ion (H+) is an acid.
Therefore, an acid increases the hydrogen ion concentration.

Examples: Vinegar, Citrus Fruits, Stomach Acid (HCl)

Base is any substance that can accept a H+ ion. A base therefore decreases the H+ion concentration.

Examples: Sodium Hydroxide, Ammonia

Characteristics

  • Acids taste sour
  • Acids react strongly with metals (Zn + HCl)
  • Strong Acids are dangerous and can burn your skin
  • Bases taste bitter
  • Bases feel slippery
  • Strong bases are very dangerous and can burn your skin

Neutralization
ACID + BASE = SALT + WATER

When acids and bases are added to each other they react and neutralize each other . Neutralization results in the decomposition to salt and water and sometimes a gas also.

Example
Acid Base Gas Salt Water
HCl + NaHCO3 —> H2CO3 + NaCl + H2O

pH
The acidity or basicity of a solution is measured by pH.

The pH of a substance is the negative log of H+ ion concentration. It is written as
pH = -log [H+]

Units of pH
When measuring pH, [H+] is in units of moles of H+ per liter of solution.

The pH scale
pOH is the opposite of pH

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Indicator
An indicator is a special type of compound that changes color as the pH of a solution changes, thus telling us the pH of the solution.

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