Inequality is an expression in algebra that has the symbols  <, >, >=, <=

y \geq 3x - 5

 y + 5 < 2x – 7

The inequalities can be plotted on a graph paper as you would a normal equation of the form ax+by+c=0.

Operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division can be performed on inequalities as you would on normal equations. The same rules apply.

The same number can be added on both sides of the inequality so that the original value does not change. This rule is applicable to subtraction, multiplication and division also.




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Our life is one of acquisition. From childhood through all adult life, we devote our energy to acquiring things. Acquisition promotes distinction.

As a child we acquire knowledge. Knowledge about nature, about mathematics, the scientific laws and about our wars and the famous people who influenced us down the centuries, about our religions and so on. Without knowledge we are considered ignorant, uncouth and fit only to live in the wild. We also know a lot about other people, our neighbors, friends, relatives, our heroes etc. Very soon we become walking encyclopaedias with varying degree of acquisition levels. We also acquire skills in trade and art. We also acquire knowledge about our community and culture and how it is superior to that of another people. We acquire through inheritance (physiological or psychological) our prejudice against people of another community, another culture, another nation or another race. We also acquire the sophistication that hides our prejudices behind a veneer of nobility.

The primary concern of educators is the imparting of knowledge, thereby facilitating the acquisition of knowledge, the primary goal of education. The knowledge so acquired is measured and graded. The grade represents the capacity of the person to fit into the society in order to fulfil its needs. The unstated goal is to promote only those who have acquired most and consistently demonstrated it through examinations at every level. There is a certain pride involved in this acquisition and the subsequent recognition that follows from it. There is also a certain status associated with it in the society so that special privileges may be granted to the person with superior knowledge levels.

The need to acquire follows us into adulthood. We strive to acquire wealth, property and position in the social hierarchy. Acquisition helps us build respectability. Our power to influence people increases considerably. The more we acquire, the bigger we become.

Is there any activity that does not involve directly or indirectly acquisition of some kind? To make ourselves look attractive we acquire a wardrobe of fashionable clothes. Wealth and property endow us with superiority and respectability. Books point to our erudition. Power and position distinguish us from most other people.

The Thinking Mind


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a big thank you for all those who think alike

Every thought we entertain affects sooner or later every other person around us, ranging from the family to the world at large.

Thinking outside the box, outside the framework of morality, if we look at the consequences of every thought when it translates into action, we see that it influences others one way or the other. The influence can range from making friends or enemies to making or breaking families, or even affecting the society at large. The cascading affect of the consequences of our thoughts may take any time, which may range from moments to eternity and to every other possible duration in between.

Thinking is the most potent tool we are endowed with, but unfortunately it is not regarded as such, even blatantly abused by almost everyone all the time. It is as though we have taken it for granted even though it defines us in ways that we cannot even imagine. We seem to cover it up through mores and etiquette.

There are passing thoughts and there are thoughts that recur. It is the recurring thought that demands to be expressed. Often without considering its consequences, we allow such thoughts to fructify into actions. Thought is a seed that is always looking for a fertile field to take root. After taking root, it is ever in search of sustenance to grow and bear fruit.

It is no longer sufficient to look at the thoughts that have taken root in us from the point of view of social morality, which itself undergoes change from time to time and is also heavily dependent on the culture that has shaped it over centuries. Perhaps a more rational approach would be to study carefully and understand its consequences and then decide whether to stick to it or abandon it in the interests of the one and the many.

Thought may not be a personal thing at all, though we like to believe it is. And because we think it is personal, we don’t consider its consequences in full measure. It may be personal as long as it is inside the brain it is born in, but the moment it morphed into action, it affects all those who come into contact with the person that has harboured it in the first place.

Every great achievement and every lowly deed in this world has its origin in a thought. Once it has taken root in a mind, it survives the mind by transference. It hops from mind to mind looking for that which will translate it into action. Like a bullet that is meant to explode, it feels at home only in a gun that fires.

It is clear that thinking is the root of all action. It is thinking that motivates us. It is thinking that is the driving force in us. Even when we are idle, we are lost in our thoughts. Thinking we all know is basic to all of us. Descartes has said it eloquently: I think therefore I am. Thinking makes us feel alive. Thinking for the mind is like breathing for the body. It happens whether we are conscious of it or not. It is happening all the time.

Thought is perhaps the consequence of the act of thinking. We turn our attention to thoughts, analyse them, categorise them and so on. But we seem to ignore the very act of thinking, the process by which thoughts arise. What is the nature of this endless internal activity called thinking? How does it occur? Is it really required for the brain to survive, like breathing? Is it possible to think when we need to solve a problem and not think at all when there is no challenge from the outside?

please share your thoughts via comments

Mind Map


A mind map is considered the most effective way to brainstorm and organise one’s thoughts. It is a tool that can be used to almost any kind of activity that requires deep thinking. From executing a business project to listing todos for personal work, a mind map needs to extended its original scope of brainstorming to organized and scheduled activity.

A mind map is used primarily to record one’s thoughts on a subject any which way they occur. These ideas are then considered further and refined and then rearranged in a manner that provides the perspective one wishes to bring to the subject under study. However, when it comes to executing the thoughts and ideas in the real world, the mind map is severely cramped. To execute something we need to organize the ideas, order them in meaningful ways, and sequence them as achievable targets progressing towards a goal.

In a mind map there is no sequence to the nodes created. There can be no ordering of the nodes. The nodes can explode without limit and without direction. But without some means to order them, it would be very difficult to track them. Unlike a workflow, a mind map does not provide a road map for my work; instead, it stops after uncovering and perhaps refining the clutter in my brain. A mind map stops short of being a workflow.

A workflow could be added to the mind map which then can provide an order, a sequence, to the nodes which then become live. The workflow can provide an ordered set of nodes that can be visited in a sequence. It can also be used to track the progress of a project. The nodes can send alerts based on the timelines set for them.

Initially, to begin with, a mind map may be used as a brainstorming tool. When we have captured all the ideas relating to a project, we can then order them in a sequence. This ordering prioritize the ideas, which now actually become actionable items.

In a typical workflow there could be sequential and parallel flows and it grows in linear time. At each node it should be possible to capture notes, set deadlines, wait for other parallel activities to complete and help take decisions either to extend, alter or abort the flow depending on the outcomes. All these could be included in a mind map.

There is currently a profusion of mind map apps on the app stores, but unfortunately none of them take this approach. It would be more useful if the mind map of ideas could be transformed into a flow of actionable items. It would then become a truly productive app.

Why am I restless?


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I become restless when I am idle.

A perfectly running automobile purs when it is idling. It is ready to spring into action. But I am so distracted, disoriented, disturbed when I am idle. Why is that so? Because I am a thinking machine?

It is the thinking part, the thinker in me that is pushing towards something. Anything. Smoke, TV, iPad. Talk to someone. But whatever I do, it ends sooner or later and then the restlessness begins again. What is this restlessness? Why do I feeling it? Why do I feel that I ought to be doing something?

The dictionary meaning is
– agitated
– fidgetiness
– impatience
– ceaselessly moving
– queasiness
– uneasiness
– annoyance
– irritation
– vexation

What is restless inside of me? What is it that wants to do something? What is it that wants to be active? To be working? To be occupied?

Where does this feeling spring from? Is it in the mind?

This activity of writing it down has a quality of calming the mind, perhaps because it is now occupied. And when this is over, as it must, it will begin again and will not rest until I pick up something else.

Disquiet. A deep abiding disquietude. A sense of worthlessness. A sense of uselessness. All this can also be added to describe that feeling of restlessness.

But its cause remains elusive.

Dealing with restlessness by doing something – anything – is to deal with the consequence.

As long as the cause remains unknown, unconscious, the consequence is inevitable. So what is it that causes this restlessness?

I am not even trying to rest, so I don’t know really why I can’t rest. Is that it? To rest, to simply be, do nothing, keep still, be quiet. It seems so difficult, even impossible. To relax and let go. Relax completely so that I don’t move my eyes or the limbs, or the posture. Just sit comfortable in a chair and do absolutely nothing.

But as soon as I attempt it, the mind is full of thoughts. They begin with something I see and before long I am dealing with a thousand different thoughts. It is like a flood, a glut of thoughts, like a damn burst. How do they come up? Why do they spring up? What is causing this outburst?

I seem to swing back and forth, between what has been and what would be, between the dead past and the uncertain future. A clock in the mind that is ever in the past or in the future. Never in the now, this moment, unlike the one on the wall. Everything is a reminder of some experience in the past. Every anxiety is a reminder of something that might happen in the future. And so I swing between memory and fantasy.



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This is the age of speed. Internet is offered at the speed of light. Computers run several times faster than their predecessors. Automobiles pick up top speed in a couple of seconds. We build for speed. Everything must happen in a jiffy. This is where we are heading – from instant coffee to instant nirvana, everything must move as fast as possible. Speed is the sole criterion behind every invention.

It is a well known fact that the pace of life has increased phenomenally in a relatively short span of time, but what is not so obvious is that it is increasing at an exceedingly high rate. Even more subtle is the fact that it is happening in every department of life.

In education, it is not enough if you are able to solve a problem; you need to be able to do it in the shortest possible time. You race against the clock. As a result, your focus is more on the time passing than on the questions you need to answer to prove your worth. Every adolescent has experienced this feeling that s/he has to grow up fast and enter the adult world. They become impatient and attempt to experience life as adults do, often with irreparable consequences. As most young adults, they hurry to start a family, build a house and ‘settle down’. By twenty five they will have experienced most of life and consequently they spend the rest of it repeating the pleasant experiences and struggle to avoid the painful ones. When they grow old, they want to ‘know’ god. They acquire enormous knowledge regarding the divine according to their culture, tirelessly repeat themselves at every opportunity and become impatient for salvation.

Our world is changing fast and the dictum ‘adapt or perish’ in this race to survive is experienced sooner rather than later by every passing generation.

The question is: what is it that is good about speed and that which is destructive about it?

What does it mean to lose someone?


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For a long time I have been concerned with the question of loss, not in any sorrowful way but merely to come to grips with a loss that is irrecoverable.

One has experienced the loss of a loved one or a most prized possession or the time that was exuberantly spent. One has also probably suffered the loss in terms of losing faith in something one has believed in.

It is relatively easy to cope with the loss of personal effects, like money, jewellery or even a precious gift. It is also not so difficult to get over the loss of faith in belief because there is a plethora of beliefs to choose from. It is merely a matter of reorienting oneself to the new system that brings with it a new hope. But the loss of a loved one – this is not so easily forgotten, not so easily overcome, if at all.

This is the subject of my novella Magnificent Loss. I explored this idea a great deal. As I worked on the story, several aspects of this loss revealed themselves to me. The sorrow that the protagonist feels is not just the vacuum left by the loved one, but the many ways in which the loss manages to torment the one who has experienced the loss.

Several things became apparent as I grappled with this one most common, ubiquitous experience. The mind being incapable of handling something so terminal and irreconcilable begins to explore ways to escape from the fact.

– Time heals, we are told.
– Move, relocate.
– Turn to other things, say the psychologists, become involved with another.
– Exorcise the mind of the thoughts of the lost person. Let priests do the job.
– Accept the fate. Maybe you are not destined to be together.
– Develop new habits. Travel.
– Dreams and hallucinations are normal. Ignore them.
– Immerse yourself in work

These are some of the things that I explored in the book. I wish I had gone into it more deeply. I worked on the story for over two years, but tried to keep the story just over a hundred pages. This is the internet age, the age of the ebook, the fast-paced life that wants to read quickly. So I tried to capture the essence of the story while keeping the verbiage to the minimum. Folks at Indireads supported me with editorial assistance and long discussions.

It has been a year since the book was published. While I am working on other themes now, other books of long and short stories, this one book Magnificent Loss will always remain my serious attempt to unravel one of our many aspects of living.

Even if we have learnt to cope with a loss, there is still the nagging fear of another loss. There is no word in the language for ‘fear of loss’, which is what I have tried to convey in my story.

Babu’s Ignorance


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No one ever told Babu that he could say ‘I don’t know‘. Not knowing something meant an acceptance of ignorance. An ignorant person is looked down upon by the people who knew. There is a loss of face and consequently a loss of stature involved in this.

Babu usually gave some stupid or irrelevant answer or he simply lied. The words ‘I don’t know’ simply never occurred to him. He felt that somehow people were born with knowledge or were very intelligent to have acquired it fast. He was the underprivileged who did not know so many things, while nobody was interested in or didn’t give much importance to what he knew.

Babu gorged on books to fight ignorance. He hoarded piles of books ad lost himself among their pages. People, relatives and friends who knew him, remembered him as a bookworm. He read essays and stories in English kept a dictionary by his side and built up a vocabulary in many fields of knowledge. When asked, he could tell the meaning of a word and people called him a walking dictionary. It felt so uplifting to Babu to hear that and he, encouraged by flattery, set himself the lofty goal of being called a walking encyclopaedia.

But ignorance seems to win most of the time. Some people seem to ask the most difficult questions, like where was such and such located in the city? Of course, such questions were trivial. Too mundane. Too small to give his attention to. Why couldn’t they ask something like when such and such thing happened in history and why? He figured that people asked silly questions to belittle him. Why, they would say, you don’t know where it is? You were born in this city? Babu wanted to retort that he had better things to do than to look something up in the city. But the die had been cast. He had been exposed as ignorant. Being shy, fearful and ignorant, he did not socialise much. Consequently, Babu did not have the common knowledge that most people had.

Babu thirsted for knowledge to overcome ignorance and its social consequences. What Babu couldn’t know that the term knowledge meant more than scholarship. Even in the field of higher learning, knowledge is highly specialised and expanded without limit. There too Babu feared that ignorance would not leave him. The more he knew, the more there was to know. Babu knew that it was a losing battle, but he persevered like an ox carrying a load over a mountain. Consequently Babu in his pursuit of knowledge acquired the sensibility of an ox, the sensitivity of a rodent and the perspicacity of a blind man. Precariously balanced on the life raft called knowledge, Babu swam against the current in the sea of ignorance.

Babu began to collect material to justify his ignorance. If he couldn’t fight it, he would do well to come to terms with it. ‘If ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.’ Babu knew very well that he felt like a lord in the power of knowledge and like a fearful rodent in the arms of ignorance. But some people said things in favour of ignorance which might work as a compromise formula in his battle against it. Knowledge, he read, was always accumulative, growing, forever expanding, and therefore it is futile to want to acquire it. No amount of it will reduce the equally growing and expanding ignorance. This, Babu reasoned, was why he couldn’t overcome ignorance with knowledge. He felt better whenever his knowledge was questioned or his ignorance exposed. But no amount of justification freed him from the fear of what people might say. They always asked things he didn’t know, and he couldn’t bring himself up to say it. For the more he read, the more he was expected to know, and the more he felt vulnerable to ignorance. It became a vicious circle for him. Ignorance. Fear. Knowledge. Each spurring on the other in an endless circle.

Star Stuff


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There is no star but a name given to a densely packed hydrogen gas transmuting into helium and releasing heat and light energy. The size and location of these dense clouds of hydrogen gas are fixed in space relative to us, and therefore we gave them names to refer to.

— courtesy NASA, as seen from Hubble Telescope

The cloud closest to us in space we have named as Sun. The force generated from the transmutation caused huge chunks of the gas to be ejected from the parent cloud. Science tells us that these chunks of gas cooled in a very long time and formed into what we call planets.

Question: Why are the chunks not forming now? Or, is there a chance that we may witness the creation of a planet even now? In the solar system, not in some distant galaxy.

If you have the answer, please post it as a comment, thanks.

As the planets cooled, different elements were born at different temperatures. The cooling planet also experienced tremendous pressures at different regions within itself. These pressures were responsible for the wonderful metals and stones that we treasure as most precious.

What science cannot tell us is how this hydrogen gas came to be in the first place. And how it started to burn. We know that heat of friction may cause fire, so it is reasonable to assume that the molecules of the hydrogen gas collided and grated against one another and set fire to themselves. The question, of how this gas came into being, in such insanely vast amounts, and in such beautiful and orderly structure, still begs an answer.

The burning cloud clusters in space are countless, their size and energy are measureless and the space in which they exist…ah, no, they create space as they expand and multiply.

The Rite of Passage


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Even though I had been wanting to write for as long as I can remember, I didn’t actually get around to doing it until a few years ago. An acquaintance had shown me a story she wrote and wanted me to comment. I read it and then immediately started correcting it. It seemed like a good story that is badly written. I soon realized that I had to almost rewrite it in full, for no amount of correction could remedy the problem with the story as it was written. I sat down and wrote the story in my own words, leaving the spirit of the story intact.

That experience left me with the feeling that I could indeed write if I had the story clear in my mind. And then one day it happened. I thought up a story and wrote it all down in one sitting. It was not a Nobel prize winning story, but that is beside the point. I, who had always hoped to write, who had harbored an aspiration to be a writer, could successfully put pen to paper. It gave me immense satisfaction when I finished the story. It was something that I had scribbled on a piece of paper as the words appeared on the page in a rush.

That was the beginning and since then I wrote about a dozen short stories and a couple of novels. It was heartening to see a couple of short stories published on the web and to top it all I had my first novella published by Indireads. I have now come a full circle, as it were, having scratched that itch to be a writer.

The first book began as an idea, the germ of a story without an ending. I worked on it for a couple of years, but the ending still eluded me. This was my first attempt at a very long story, a novella, unlike the short stories I had written until then. I broke off several times in that period and wrote more short stories and completed another novel of a very different kind from the one I was working on. And then I happened upon this publishing venture from Indireads, who accepted my story and agreed to provide the editorial assistance and other support in finishing my story. The ‘other’ support included several discussions regarding the route that the story could take for a conclusion. It was then that the end came swiftly and completely to me. It was unlike anything we had discussed. I wrote it and offered for comment. The publisher’s response encouraged me to finish the book. I finished in record time, compared to the time that I had spent working on it. I was also toying with several titles for the book and finally decided on this: Magnificent Loss. The story ending, gushed my publisher, was magnificent.

I wrote it under my real name Anand Betanabhotla, after debating with myself whether I should adopt a pen name. This decision to go by my real name was in most part dictated by my online presence: I was already blogging on Blogger from Google. The decision paid off. Googling my name will fetch the results for my blog posts as well as my novel and the published short stories.

From a beginning that was so simple and unassuming, to the day when I got my debut novel published, it has been a wonderful journey for me. I hadn’t the faintest inclination at that time that I would one day go on to become a writer. I have a couple books under my belt and hopefully they will see the light of day soon.


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